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Indications for fetal echocardiography: 

Maternal indications: 

  • Family history of Congenital Heart Disease: first degree relative with a history of congenital heart disease,

  • Specific Metabolic disorders (Diabetes),

  • Autoimmune disease (SLE, Sjogren’s),

  • Rubella infection, 

  • Exposure to specific teratogens known to increase the risk of cardiac abnormalities such as Lithium, Alcohol, Anti-seizure medication, and Paxil(Paroxetine).


Fetal indications: 

  • Abnormal obstetrical ultrasound screen,

  • Chromosomal abnormality,

  • Arrhythmia, increased first trimester nuchal translucency,

  • Multiple gestation and suspicion of twin-twin transfusion syndrome,

  • Hydrops.

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